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Medieval portuguese

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Medieval portuguese

Post by jorneto on Fri Jan 02, 2015 7:00 pm

Below is my proposal for a portuguese medieval list which covers the gap between the two already published in EI3 and EI5. The research is not mine but rather from my fellow gamer Vitor Hugo which kindly allowed me to use his work.

Regarding the two published lists I would also suggest some adjustments to their dates:
a) Vol.18 - Feudal Castillian, Leonese and Portuguese (1050 – 1350)
                 Suitable for Portuguese until 1325 (instead of 1350)
b) Vol.27 – Portuguese 1475 - 1479
                 Dates should be changed to 1450 - 1479


MIDDLE PORTUGUESE (1326 - 1449 AD) - (VOLUME 23?)

CS: Poor (0 pts) or Average (12 pts)

Nr Type M VBU I D VD Pts Notes

0-1 CP King’s or Condestável retinue (*) 8 8 4 C 3 39 Impetuous
1-4 CP Cavaleiros fidalgos, vassalos and escudeiros (*) 8 7 4 C 3 29 Impetuous
......FP Dismount above Knights or Retinue 5 6 2 C 3 20
0-1 CP Freires cavaleiros professos (religious military orders) 8 8 5 B 3 45 Impetuous
0-1 CP English men-at-arms 8 6 3 B 3 28
......FP Dismount Orders or English knights 5 6 2 B 3 25
0-2 CM Cavaleiros aquantiados or vilãos 10 6 2 B 3 29
0-1 CL Cavaleiros aquantiados or vilãos 12 4 1 B 1 20
0-2 CL Ginetes 12 3 1 B 1 21 Javelin
0-1 CL Besteiros de garrucha (mounted crossbowmen) 12 3 0 B 1 18 Crossbow B
0-2 FP Pike armed peões (foot) 5 4 1 B 2 17(12) Pike
2-8 FP Spear armed peões (*) 5 5 1 C 2/3 16(12) Long Spear
0-2 FP Freires professos spearmen 5 5 1 B 2 21(15) Long Spear
1-3 T Besteiros de fraldilha or de polé 6 3 0 C 1 14 Crossbow A
0-1 S Besteiros 8 2 0 B 1 12 Crossbow B
0-1 T Freires professos crossbowmen 6 4 0 B 1 21 Crossbow A
0-1 T Besteiros do Conto crossbowmen 6 4 1 B 1 24 Crossbow A
0-2 FP Pole weapon armed peões 5 5 3 B 2 20
2-10 S Javelin armed peões 8 2 0 B 1 12 Javelin
0-2 T Archer peões 6 3 0 C 1 11 Short Bow A
0-3 S Fundibulários 8 2 0 B 1 12 Sling
0-2 T English archers 6 4 0 B 1 23 Longbow A
0-4 FP Local citizens (serviçais, lavradores) or ecclesiastic peões 5 3 1 C 1 7
0-1 ART Trons 3 1 0 B 1 15 Artillery B
0-1 ART Heavy artillery 2 1 0 B 1 20 Artillery A
0-10 FOR Fortifications 5

NOTES AND OPTIONS.
Both Pikemen and Spearmen can form large units.

This period was marked by the portuguese-castillian war (1336-1339); the Salado campaign (1340); the civil war between D. Afonso IV and the Prince D. Pedro; the Fernandine wars against Castilla (1369-1371, 1372-1373 and 1381-1382); the Revolution and war against Castilla (1383-1385); the anglo-portuguese campaign in Castilla and Leon (1387); war with Castilla again (1388, 1411-1431); sucession wars after king’s D. Duarte death (1438-1441); the three expeditions to help Castilla (1441, 1444, 1445); and finally the battle of Alfarrobeira (1449).

During the rule of D. Dinis (1279-1325) there was a major military reorganization, with the creation of the mainly crossbow units of the besteiros do conto. This meant not only the creation of the first specialized troops but also made thereafter possible for the King to quickly predict the possible army strength that could be gathered in each particular circumstance.

Militarily the battle of Alfarrobeira closed the Medieval period in Portugal. From then on the use of gunpowder in both the field battles and sieges greatly increased, the military operations reaching as far as Morocco and Senegal.

This list covers mainly the troop types that would be fight in the Royal host army, organized arround mesnadas. Recruitment was from the Concelhos, Abbeys, Royal Household, fiefs and Military Orders.
The feudal lord raised it’s mesnada under a captain commanding several lanças, each one composed by a rider, an herald, a bowman, a escudeiro (squire) and a crossbowman.

The Royal Household’s mesnada included the King, eclesiastics, the Meirinho-Mor, the Alferes-Mor, the royal retinue, officials and minor gentry led by a captain.

At the Concelhos the mesnada included the aquantiados foot, led by a captain and the crossbowmen besteiros do conto, that could be mounted (de garrucha) or use a firing-support (de fraldilha or de polé), each unit being led by it’s own Anadel and all the crossbowmen by a Anadel-mor.

The Abbey’s mesnada provided men-at-arms, pikemen and other foot, led by their own captain. When the Abbey’s mesnada joined the Royal Army it would be led by the Grão Mestre (Master of the Order) himself, followed by the alferes and the freires cavaleiros professos (Order’s men-at-arms) plus servants and farmers under their captain.

The Condestável (Constable) was followed by the alferes, meirinho and other official’s retinue.

The army included light field guns resting on stakes called trons, nominated after their sound.
The cavaleiros vilãos were non-noble wealthy men that would aim at the nobility status, also led by a Captain.


As for numbers and since the written sources omit such statistics, we have to do with reasonable gess. The basic unit was the lança, each of whom could have had two crossbowmen plus two other foot. According to the “Hordenança Çerta” of the early XV c., the Portuguese Royal Army would have some 3200 lanças, thus making an army of 10.000 to 12.000 men (plus non-combatants).
However by getting together several contingents an army of 15.000 to 30.000 would be possible. Likely proportions are: 5.000 to 6.000 knights; 5.000 to 10.000 cavaleiros aquantiados (or vilãos) and light cavalry; 7.000 to 8.000 shooters; 5.000 besteiros do conto; 500 besteiros de garrucha and hundreds of mercenaries plus homiziados (convicted serving to avoid a worse fate).

jorneto
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